Rimsky-Korsakov’s Scheherazade

Notes by TŌN violinist Grace Choi

Born into a family of nobility, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov proved a bright child growing up in the small town of Tikhvin, about a hundred miles east of St. Petersburg. Although his parents were not music intellectuals, his infant ears would often catch them humming and tinkering opera melodies on the family keyboard. Piano lessons were consistently sporadic and Rimsky’s brilliant memory left him often playing tunes by ear. His serious attention towards music did not begin until his teenage years when he first attended the Russian Opera—fortuitously during the acme of Italian opera.

Rimsky became one of the “Mighty Handful,” a power team of composers which included Balakirev, Borordin, Cui, and Mussorgsky. Also known as the “Russian Five,” they were the embodiment of Russian nationalism in the 19th century, constantly striving to find the Russian classical voice.

Rimsky’s Scheherazade is based on The Arabian Nights, an anthology of 1,001 stories ostensibly narrated by the wise woman, Scheherazade, who is on a mission to save all of the virgins of Persia from imminent doom. The grand Sultan Shakhriar has been permanently injured upon discovery of his beloved wife’s infidelity. In acrimony toward all women, the Sultan marries a virgin every day and executes her the next morning. Scheherazade is determined to end the gruesome cycle and marries the Sultan with a shrewd agenda: she tells him a gripping fable each night but never reaches the conclusion, leaving Shakhriar deathly curious to keep her alive until she reveals it the next morning. Although Rimsky used the tale of The Arabian Nights, he merely wished to coax the listener’s imagination into a fantasy wonderland: “ . . . to direct but slightly the hearer’s fancy on the path which my own fancy had travelled, and to leave more minute and particular conceptions to the will and mood of each.”

The opening is an explicit leitmotif, indicating our two characters, the Sultan and Scheherazade. This is the chief amalgamating detail which presides throughout the work. The strings double the low brass section and woodwinds to delineate the Sultan’s draconian imperial command, which is seductively answered by Scheherazade, as portrayed on the solo violin. Even up until the finale, Rimsky illustrates the enchanting sequence of tales; Scheherazade takes the final word with the reminiscent motif.

Carl Nielsen’s Aladdin Suite

Notes by TŌN cellist Jinn Shin

Although Carl Nielsen’s music may be considered foreign and unexplored in the United States, nearly everyone in Denmark can hum at least one or two of his folk-like songs. He was one of the country’s finest musicians and played a vital role in finding and establishing the Danish nationalistic sound. His first international breakthrough, however, was not until 1962, thirty years after his death, when Bernstein recorded his Fifth Symphony with the New York Philharmonic.

Born to a poor but musical family in 1865, Nielsen joined a military band before attending The Royal Danish Academy of Music. It was not until the premiere of his First Symphony in 1894 that he received recognition and started getting commissions, which were mostly for incidental music.

Nielsen composed his incidental music to Aladdin on a commission from the Royal Theatre in Copenhagen. Its first performance was a disaster; Nielsen found out that the producer had made significant cuts to his music and had crammed the entire orchestra under a staircase onstage. Furious and disgusted, Nielsen demanded his name be removed from the program. However, he regularly conducted extracts from Aladdin in his concerts, which seemed to be very popular with his audiences.

Nielsen’s orchestral voice was initially inspired by Brahms and Grieg, then he started to develop his own voice by combining progressive tonality, folky melodic richness, and energetic rhythms. This is apparent in his Aladdin Suite; although not as experimental and dramatic as some of his symphonies, his originality stands out even in this more light-hearted genre. The suite opens with a bombastic march, which originally appears in Act III of the play. Then, the serene, delicate sound of muted strings portrays “Aladdin’s Dream,” which is paired with a sparkly waltz, “Dance of the Morning Mists.” The outer sections of the “Hindu Dance” are slow and exotic, while the wind-dominated middle section is more flowing and familiar-sounding. The “Chinese Dance” does not sound authentic, but the charming, fast ornaments in the winds and the violins allude to an Oriental sound and create a perky character. The “Prisoners’ Dance” begins with robust, stubborn brass statements and ardent string sounds. The dramatic, dark atmosphere sustains throughout the movement with repeated notes in different instruments. Last but not least, the “Negro Dance” ends the suite energetically with pounding rhythms and syncopated tunes.